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参与碳氮磷转化的水解酶对不同施肥响应的差异
闵凯凯, 何向阳, 吴倩怡, 张冠友, 胡 锋, 李辉信, 焦加国
南京农业大学资源与环境科学学院
摘要:
本文旨在研究土壤水解酶对不同施肥的响应差异以及影响因素。通过在红壤中添加牛粪有机肥、化肥进行90 d的室内土壤培养试验,采用微孔板荧光法动态分析5、30和90 d参与碳氮磷转化的土壤水解酶(α-1,4-葡萄糖苷酶、β-1,4-葡萄糖苷酶、纤维素酶、木聚糖酶、亮氨酸氨基肽酶、β-1,4-N-乙酰氨基葡萄糖苷酶、磷酸酶)活性。与不施肥(对照)相比,在30 d后,化肥处理的总酶活性显著下降,对应的参与碳氮磷转化酶活性均有不同程度下降;而有机肥处理的总酶活性在培养期内均未发生显著变化,但是其α-1,4-葡萄糖苷酶显著增加,而磷酸酶活性显著降低。参与碳转化的4种水解酶中,只有α-1,4-葡萄糖苷酶活性对施肥的响应较强,且施加有机肥增加其活性而无机肥则降低其活性;对于参与氮转化的水解酶而言,化肥明显抑制了亮氨酸氨基肽酶活性,而有机肥增加了β-1,4-N-乙酰氨基葡萄糖苷酶活性;磷酸酶活性明显受到有机肥的抑制作用,而对化肥的响应总体不明显。不同水解酶对不同施肥的响应有明显差异,NMDS分析表明,α-1,4-葡萄糖苷酶和亮氨酸氨基肽酶响应最明显,其次为磷酸酶与木聚糖酶;相关和冗余分析显示,土壤pH、可溶性有机碳对酶活性的影响最大,一定程度说明了不同肥料通过影响土壤理化性质进而影响水解酶活性。
关键词:  有机肥  化肥  碳氮磷转化水解酶  微孔板荧光法
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.04.010
分类号:S154.2
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300908, 2016YFD0200106)和大学生研究训练计划(SRT计划)项目(1713C28)资助。
Different Responses of Soil Hydrolases Involved in Transformation of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus to Different Fertilizers
MIN Kaikai, HE Xiangyang, WU Qianyi, ZHANG Guanyou, HU Feng, LI Huixin, JIAO Jiaguo
College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University
Abstract:
This study is to investigate the responses of soil hydrolases to different fertilization and the influencing factors. Three fertilizer treatments were designed and compared, including an unfertilized control with only red soil (R), cow manure (R+C) and chemical fertilizer (R+NPK). Soil samples were taken at three times (5, 30 and 90 d) during 90 d incubation to evaluate the activities of soil hydrolases involved in the transformation of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus using the microplate fluorescence method. Seven hydrolases were studied, including α-1,4-glucosidase, β-1,4-glucosidase, cellulase, xylanase, leucine aminopeptidase, β-1,4-N-glucosaminidase and phosphatase. At the 30 d, chemical fertilizer significantly decreased the total enzyme activity, and slightly reduced enzyme activities involved in the transformation of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus compared with the control (R). Organic fertilizer had no effect on the total enzyme activity, but significantly increased the activity of α-1,4-glucosidase but decreased the activity of phosphatase during the incubation period. For the four hydrolases involved in carbon transformation, only α-1,4-glucosidase activity responded strongly to fertilization, which was promoted by the organic fertilizer but decreased by the chemical fertilizer. For the hydrolases involved in nitrogen transformation, the activity of leucine aminopeptidase was inhibited by chemical fertilizer, while β-1,4-N-glucosaminidase activity was promoted by organic fertilizer. Besides, phosphatase activity was reduced by organic fertilizer, but was not affected by chemical fertilizer. The responses of different hydrolases were different to fertilizers, NMDS analysis showed that the responses of α-1,4-glucosidase and leucine aminopeptidase were most obvious to fertilization, followed by phosphatase and xylanase. The correlation and redundancy analyses showed that soil pH and soluble organic carbon had the greatest influence on enzyme activities, indicating that fertilization-induced alteration of soil physicochemical properties is the main pathway that influencing soil enzyme activities.
Key words:  Organic fertilizer  Chemical fertilizer  Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus transformation enzyme  Microplate fluorescence method

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