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桂北柑橘园土壤化学性状研究
张超博1, 邱洁雅1, 王 敏1, 李有芳1, 朱攀攀1, 王 彤1, 邓崇岭2, 付行政1, 凌丽俐1, 刘升球2, 陈传武2, 彭良志1
1.西南大学柑桔研究所;2.广西特色作物研究院
摘要:
为了解桂北柑橘园土壤化学状况,2017年在桂北7个柑橘主产县(市)选取102个代表性柑橘园采集土壤样本,对pH、有机质和10种养分进行定量分析。结果表明:土壤pH变幅 3.95 ~ 8.02。其中,pH处于强酸性(pH<4.5)、酸性(pH 4.5 ~ 5.5)和碱性(pH >7.3)范围的果园分别占总样本数的24.51%、48.04% 和9.80%,大部分果园土壤pH为强酸性和酸性,有64.70% 的果园土壤pH适宜或基本适宜(pH 4.5 ~ 7.0)柑橘生长,但仅有14.71% 的果园土壤pH适宜柑橘生长(pH 5.5 ~ 6.5)。土壤有机质含量丰富,适量及以上水平的比例达86.27%。果园土壤营养元素丰缺并存,失衡比较明显,其中,有效磷和有效钾含量不足(低量或缺乏)的比例分别为33.33% 和30.39%,超标(高量或过量)比例分别为21.57% 和23.53%;碱解氮和有效钙含量主要在适量范围,不足比例分别为36.27% 和31.37 %;有效铁和有效锰含量丰富,超标比例分别为64.71% 和55.89%;有效镁、锌、铜和硼含量不足比例较高,分别为59.80%、92.16%、56.86% 和50.98%。桂北柑橘产区土壤养分限制因子主要为土壤酸化,有效镁、锌、铜和硼含量不足,生产上应注重调节土壤酸碱度,适度增施镁、锌、铜和硼肥。
关键词:  桂北  柑橘园  土壤  养分
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.06.013
分类号:S158
基金项目:国家重点研发计划专项课题(2017YFD0202006)和国家现代农业(柑橘)产业技术体系建设专项(CARS-26-01A)资助。
Study on Soil Chemical Properties of Citrus Orchards in Northern Guangxi
ZHANG Chaobo1, QIU Jieya1, WANG Min1, LI Youfang1, ZHU Panpan1, WANG Tong1, DENG Chongling2, FU Xingzheng1, LING Lili1, LIU Shengqiu2, CHEN Chuanwu2, PENG Liangzhi1
1.Citrus Research Institute,Southwest University;2.Guangxi Academy of Specialty Crops
Abstract:
In order to evaluate soil chemical properties of citrus orchards in northern Guangxi, 102 typical citrus orchards in 7 major citrus production counties in northern Guangxi were selected, soil samples were collected in 2017, and soil pH, organic matter and 10 nutrient contents were quantitatively analyzed and studied. The results showed that the range of soil pH was 3.95–8.02, among them, strong acid (pH<4.5), acid (pH 4.5–5.5) and alkaline (pH>7.3) soil samples were accounted for 24.51%, 48.04% and 9.80% of the total samples, respectively, and most orchard soils were strongly acid and acid. 64.70% of soil samples was suitable or basically suitable for citrus growth in pH (4.5–7.0), among of them, only 14.71% of soil samples was suitable for citrus growth in pH (5.5–6.5). Soil organic matter was rich, the proportion of suitable and above the suitable levels reached 86.27% in total. Most of the citrus orchards were rich and deficient coexistence in soil nutrients, which indicated poor balance of soil nutrients. 33.33% and 30.39% of soil samples were below the optimal ranges for citrus growth in available P and K, respectively, while 21.57% and 23.53% of soil samples were above optimal ranges, respectively. Soil available N and Ca were mainly within the suitable levels for citrus growth, however 36.27% and 31.37% of soil samples were in the insufficient levels, respectively. Soil available Fe and Mn were rich, and 64.71% and 55.89% of soil samples exceeded suitable levels, respectively. 59.80%, 92.16%, 56.86% and 50.98% of soil samples were deficient for citrus growth in available Mg, Zn, Cu and B, respectively. Soil acidification and deficiencies in available Mg, Zn, Cu and B are the limiting factors for citrus growth in northern Guangxi, thus, attentions should be paid to adjust soil pH and applying more Mg, Zn, Cu and B fertilizers.
Key words:  Northern Guanxi  Citrus orchard  Soil  Nutrient elements

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