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有机肥替代部分化肥对干旱区滴灌玉米养分吸收及产量影响
孟超然1, 白如霄2, 候建伟3, 张新疆1, 张皓禹1, 危常州1
1.石河子大学农学院/新疆生产建设兵团绿洲生态农业重点实验室;2.新疆生产建设兵团第九师农业科学研究所;3.昭苏自治区级农业科技园区
摘要:
新疆是玉米高产区,但高产往往建立在化肥大量施用的前提下,研究有机肥替代部分化肥对新疆北疆干旱区滴灌玉米植株养分吸收及产量的影响,可为该地区化肥施用减量、生产成本降低、养分效率提高的新型施肥模式提供科学依据。通过田间小区试验,比较化肥和有机肥氮磷钾养分投入合计量相同,且生物有机肥替代8%、16%、24% 化肥氮,或生物有机肥、牛粪、羊粪、玉米秸秆替代16% 化肥氮对玉米养分吸收、产量、氮素效率及经济效益的影响。结果表明:与单施化肥相比,有机肥替代部分化肥可增加玉米干物质花后积累比例3.23% ~ 11.81%,氮、钾养分花后吸收比例最大分别增加19.45%、15.44%,增加玉米产量8.50% ~ 21.00%。有机肥替代部分化肥下总氮素表观利用率、偏生产力、生理利用率、贡献率较单施化肥最大分别增加了12.04%、9.36%、29.64%、12.63%,经济效益最大增加65.08%。较短年限内以生物有机肥氮替代8% 或以牛、羊粪氮替代16% 化肥氮是此研究推荐的施肥方案。
关键词:  干旱区  玉米  有机肥氮  化肥氮  养分吸收  产量
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.04.014
分类号:S141.9
基金项目:国家重点研发计划课题项目(2017YFD0201808)和新疆兵团区域创新引导计划项目(2018BB020)资助。
Effects of Organic Materials Partially Substituting Chemical Fertilizer on Nutrient Uptake and Yield of Maize Under Drip Irrigation in Arid Region
MENG Chaoran1, BAI Ruxiao2, HOU Jianwei3, ZHANG Xinjiang1, ZHANG Haoyu1, WEI Changzhou1
1.College of Agronomy, Shihezi University/Key Laboratory of Oasis Ecological Agriculture, Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps;2.Institute of Agricultural Science, 9th Division, Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps;3.Zhaosu Municipal Agricultural Science and Technology Park
Abstract:
Maize yield in Xinjiang has reached a high level based on large-amount application of chemical fertilizers. It can provide a scientific basis for a new fertilization mode reducing fertilizer application and agricultural cost and improving nutrient efficiency in the arid region of northern Xinjiang to study the effects of chemical fertilizer partially substituted by organic materials on the nutrient uptake and yield of drip-irrigated maize. A field experiment was conducted to compare the differences in nutrient uptake, nitrogen efficiency and maize yield among no N fertilizer treatment, single chemical fertilizer treatment, bio-organic fertilizer substituting 8%, 16%, 24% chemical fertilizer treatments and bio-organic fertilizer, cow manure, sheep manure, corn straw substituting 16% chemical fertilizer treatments. The results showed that chemical fertilizer partially substituted by organic materials increased the post-anthesis accumulation ratio of maize dry matter by 3.23%-11.81% and increased the absorption ratios of nitrogen and potassium by 19.45% and 15.44%, respectively, and increased maize yield by 8.50%-21.00% compared with single chemical fertilizer treatment. Under the treatments of chemical fertilizer partially substituted by organic materials, the apparent utilization rate, partial productivity, physiological utilization rate and contribution rate of total nitrogen increased by 12.04%, 9.36%, 29.64% and 12.63%, respectively, and the maximum benefit increased by 65.08% compared with single chemical fertilizer treatment. Replacing 8% chemical fertilizer with bio-organic fertilizer or replacing 16% chemical fertilizer with cow or sheep manure is the recommended in a short period in this stduy.
Key words:  Arid Region  Maize  Organic fertilizer  Nutrient Uptake  Yield

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