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水肥调控对二月兰和后茬花生养分累积及土壤肥力的影响
赵彩衣1, 王媛媛1, 殷小冬1, 董青君1, 朱国梁2, 刘满强1, 李辉信1, 胡 锋1, 焦加国1
1.南京农业大学资源与环境科学学院;2.泰安市农业科学研究院
摘要:
田间试验条件下,研究不同水肥处理对二月兰生长及其翻压后后茬花生产量和养分累积的变化。结果表明,灌溉和施肥可显著促进二月兰生长。在绿肥季,不论施肥与否,灌溉处理均可显著提高二月兰的生物量和氮、磷、钾养分含量,NPW(绿肥季施氮磷肥和灌溉)和CKW处理(绿肥季不施肥,只进行灌溉处理)的二月兰生物量和氮、磷、钾养分含量分别比相应的未灌溉处理提高了66.47%、63.97%,76.95%、32.36%,88.31%、9.80% 和21.71%、15.56%。二月兰翻压的养分还田量为91.04 ~ 260.23 kg/hm2,约占花生季化肥总养分的27.59% ~ 78.86%。与CF(冬闲处理)相比,不同施肥和灌溉处理的绿肥翻压均促进了花生产量和养分累积,及土壤养分含量的提高,其中以EN(周年等氮,主作物减氮)处理的提升效果最明显。周年等养分条件下,花生季35.00% 氮肥和/或42.86% 磷肥前移至绿肥季,可明显促进绿肥养分还田量的增加,后茬花生产量不同程度增加(增幅22.82% ~ 41.18%)。综上,在适量灌溉和施肥条件下,二月兰生物量明显增加,进而促进后茬花生产量增加及养分累积。研究结果可为我国绿肥农田应用及化肥减施提供数据支撑和实践依据。
关键词:  二月兰  土壤肥力  花生产量  养分累积
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.06.007
分类号:S553+9
基金项目:国家绿肥产业技术体系项目(CARS-22-G-10)资助。
Effects of Irrigation and Fertilization Regulation on Nutrient Accumulation of Orychophragmus violaceus and Succeeding Peanut and Soil Fertility
ZHAO Caiyi1, WANG Yuanyuan1, YIN Xiaodong1, DONG Qingjun1, ZHU Guoliang2, LIU Manqiang1, LI Huixin1, HU Feng1, JIAO Jiaguo1
1.College of Resources and Environmental Science,Nanjing Agricultural University;2.Taian Academy of Agriculture Sciences
Abstract:
The effects of irrigation and fertilization regulation on the growth and nutrient accumulation of Orychophragmus violaceus(L.)Schulz and succeeding peanut as well as on soil fertilirty were studied. The results showed that both irrigation and fertilization significantly promoted the growth of Orychophragmus violaceus. In green manure season, irrigation significantly increased the biomass, N, P and K contents of Orychophragmus violaceus with or without fertilization. Compared with the treatments without irrigation, NPW treatment (green manure growing season with N, P fertilizer and irrigation) and CKW treatment (green manure growing season with irrigation but without fertilization) increased the biomass, root activity, and contents of N, P and K of Orychophragmus violaceus by 66.47% and 63.97%, 76.95% and 32.36%, 88.31% and 9.80%, 21.71% and 15.56%, respectively. The nutrients returned to field from the turned down Orychophragmus violaceus was 91.04–260.23 kg/hm2, accounting for 27.59% – 78.86% of the total nutrients of the applied chemical fertilizers in peanut season. Compared with CF treatment (winter idle), the treatments of green manure growing with fertilization and irrigation promoted the yield and nutrient accumulation of succeeding peanuts, and also increased soil nutrients, among which the effect of EN treatment (same annual nitrogen nutrient condition,main crop nitrogen reduction fertilizer) was most obvious. Under same annual nutrient condition, 35.00% of nitrogen and/or 42.86% of phosphorus fertilization in peanut season transferred forward to the green manure season significantly increased the nutrients returned to field from the turned down green manure and increased peanut yield by 22.82% – 41.18%. In summary, appropriate irrigation and fertilization can significantly increase the biomass of Orychophragmus violaceus, thus can increase the yield and nutrient accumulation of succeeding peanut. The above results can provide data support for the application of green manure and fertilizer reduction in China.
Key words:  Orychophragmus violaceus  Soil fertility  Peanut yield  Nutrient accumulation

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