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粉垄耕作改良盐碱地效果及机理
韦本辉, 申章佑, 周 佳, 周灵芝, 胡 泊, 张 宪
广西农业科学院经济作物研究所
摘要:
在重度盐碱地上,采用粉垄专用机械2 a内耕作3次,并以拖拉机旋耕为对照,比较了两种耕作方式0 ~ 20、20 ~ 40、40 ~ 60 cm土层土壤容重、含盐量以及作物产量,探讨了粉垄耕作改良盐碱地的效果及其机理。结果表明:粉垄耕作3次,0 ~ 20 cm土壤容重由试验前的1.27 g/cm3降至1.06 g/cm3,降幅达16.54%;而对照土壤容重降至1.12 g/cm3,降幅为11.81%,粉垄耕作比对照降低29.1%。第1次耕作后,粉垄耕作土壤0 ~ 20、20 ~ 40和40 ~ 60 cm土层全盐量分别为8.6、5.7和4.4 g/kg,对照分别为9.2、4.9和4.2 g/kg,粉垄耕作较对照的变化幅度分别为 –6.52%、16.32% 和4.54%,第3次耕作种植夏玉米,粉垄耕作玉米产量(鲜重)为12 150 kg/hm2,比对照(7 020 kg/hm2)增产73.0%。试验结束时,0 ~ 20、20 ~ 40、40 ~ 60 cm土壤全盐含量粉垄耕作分别为4.3、7.2和4.9 g/kg,比对照(分别为8.9、4.7和4.3 g/kg)分别下降51.68%、增加53.19% 和增加13.95%。上述结果表明,粉垄耕作可以使土壤盐分向下迁移而下层盐分不易上移,保证上层土壤盐分相对较低,从而有利于作物的正常发育和生长。
关键词:  粉垄耕作  超深耕作  重度盐碱地  物理改良  增产效果
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.04.007
分类号:S156.4+2
基金项目:山东黄三角农高区合作项目(2017-4)和广西创新驱动重大专项(桂科AA17204037)资助。
Study on Effect and Mechanism of Improving Saline-alkali Soil by Fenlong Tillage
WEI Benhui, SHEN Zhangyou, ZHOU Jia, ZHOU Lingzhi, HU Po, ZHANG Xian
Cash Crops Research Institute,Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Abstract:
The severe saline-alkali land was cultivated by special Fenglong machinery and by the conventional tractor rotary tillage (CK) 3 times within two years, soil bulk densities and salt contents in 0–20, 20–40 and 40–60 cm layers and the crop yields were measured and compared, and the effect and its mechanism of Fenlong tillage improving saline-alkali land were discussed. The results showed that Fenlong tillage reduced soil bulk density of 0–20 cm layer from the test before 1.27 g/cm3 to 1.06 g/cm3 with a decrease by 16.54%, while CK decreased soil bulk density of 0–20 cm layer from the test before 1.27 g/cm3 to 1.12 g/cm3 with a decrease by 11.81%, the former reduced 29.1% more than the latter. Immediate sampling after the first cultivation showed that the total salt contents in 0–20, 20–40 and 40–60 cm layers were 8.6, 5.7 and 4.4 g/kg for Fenlong tillage, 9.2, 4.9 and 4.2 g/kg for CK, and the variation ranges between the two tillage methods were –6.52%, 16.32% and 4.54%., respectively. For the third cultivation, summer maize was planted, and maize yield (fresh weight) was 12 150 kg/hm2 for Fenlong tillage, 73.0% higher than CK (7 020 kg/hm2). At the end of this test, the total salt contents in 0–20, 20–40 and 40–60 cm were 4.3, 7.2 and 4.9 g/kg for Fenlong tillage, while 8.9, 4.7 and 4.3 g/kg for CK, and the variation ranges between the two tillage methods were –51.68%, 53.19% and 13.95%. The above results showed that Fenlong tillage could move the salt from the surface layer (0–20 cm) to the low layer while inhibit the salt in the low layer moving upwards, thus make the salt content in surface soil at a relatively low level, which is conducive to the normal germination and growth of crops.
Key words:  Fenlong tillage  Deep tillage  Saline-alkali soil  Physical improvement  Yield-increasing effect

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