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沼液对河西绿洲葡萄园土壤微生物功能多样性的影响
郝 燕, 李金霞, 孙小妹, 陈年来
甘肃农业大学资源与环境学院
摘要:
在甘肃祁连葡萄观光园进行了增施沼液试验,旨在探明沼液施用量和年限对土壤质量和土壤微生物功能多样性的影响,试验设置的处理包括:对照处理(施用化肥,N 180 kg/hm2,P2O5 150 kg/hm2,K2O 22.5 kg/hm2)、沼液替代化肥处理(33%、67% 和100% 化肥氮分别被沼液氮替代)及沼液增施处理(沼液氮用量分别为化肥氮的133%、167% 和200%),采用Biolog-ECO微平板法测定土壤微生物功能多样性。结果表明:①33% 沼液处理的土壤微生物群落代谢活性最高,连续2a使用沼液的处理间差异大于1a使用。②土壤微生物利用的主要碳源为碳水化合物类,使用沼液能够显著提高土壤微生物对氨基酸类和羧酸类碳源的利用率。连续两年使用沼液,133% 和167% 沼液处理的效果优于其他处理。③与对照相比,使用沼液处理仅在提高土壤微生物均一度指数方面存在优势,且133% 和167% 沼液处理效果优于其他处理。④主成分分析表明,沼液使用量和使用年限对土壤微生物碳源利用水平以及代谢多样性的影响有差异,且使用年限增加能使各处理间变异程度增大。⑤碳水化合物类和氨基酸类碳源是引起不同沼液处理土壤微生物功能群分异的主要碳源,其中碳水化合物类是沼液使用年限增加后土壤微生物群落变化的敏感碳源。⑥Pearson相关性分析表明,土壤微生物功能多样性与土壤有机质、碱解氮含量呈正相关关系,与有效磷、速效钾含量呈负相关关系。综上,长期使用沼液(尤其是沼液与化肥配施)有利于提高土壤微生物代谢活性和土壤微生物群落功能多样性,且当沼液使用量较大时可以完全取代化肥。
关键词:  沼液  使用年限  Biolog-ECO微平板法  土壤微生物功能多样性
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.06.015
分类号:S154.1
基金项目:甘肃农业大学盛彤笙科技创新基金项目(31270472)和沼液综合利用研究项目(037036235)资助。
Effects of Biogas Slurry on Soil Microbial Functional Diversity of Vineyard in Hexi Oasis
HAO Yan, LI Jingxia, SUN Xiaomei, CHEN Nianlai
College of Resources and Environment, Gansu Agricultural University
Abstract:
A 2a field experiment was conducted in Qilian Grape Sightseeing Garden of Gansu Province in order to investigate the effects of biogas slurry application amount and year on soil quality and soil microbial functional diversity. The designed treatments included CK treatment (pure chemical fertilizer, N 180 kg/hm2, P2O5 150 kg/hm2, K2O 22.5 kg/hm2), biogas slurry replacing chemical fertilizer treatments (biogas slurry nitrogen replaced 33%, 67% and 100% of chemical fertilizer nitrogen), and increasing biogas slurry treatments (biogas slurry nitrogen were 133%, 167% and 200% of chemical fertilizer nitrogen). Soil microbial functional diversity was determined by Biolog method. The results showed that metabolic activity of soil microbial community was the lowest in 100% biogas slurry treatment but the highest in 33% biogas slurry treatment. Meanwhile the differences in metabolic activity between the treatments with 2a application biogas slurry were greater than those of 1a. The main carbon sources used by soil microbes were carbohydrates, biogas slurry application significantly increased the utilization rates of amino acids and carboxylic acids. Under the condition of applying biogas slurry for 2a, the effects of 133% and 167% biogas slurry treatments were better than those of other treatments. Compared with CK, biogas slurry application only had obvious advantage in promoting the McIntosh index, and the effects of 133% and 167% biogas slurry treatments were better than those of other treatments. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that biogas slurry applying amount and year had different effects on soil microbial carbon source utilization rate and metabolic diversity, and the variation degree among treatments increased with increasing applying year of biogas slurry. Carbohydrates and amino acids were the main carbon sources that caused the differentiation of soil microbial functional groups treated with different amounts of biogas slurry, and carbohydrates were the sensitive carbon sources for soil microbial community changes after the increase of applying year of biogas slurry. Pearson correlation analysis showed that soil microbial community functional diversity had positive correlation with soil organic matter and available N, and negative correlation with available P and K. In conclusion, biogas slurry application (particularly combined with chemical fertilizer) is beneficial to improve soil microbial metabolic activity and soil microbial community functional diversity, and it can completely replace chemical fertilizer when enough amount is applied.
Key words:  Biogas slurry  Application years  Biolog-ECO microplate method  Soil microbial functional diversity

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