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西安地区主要粮食作物水分生产率时空分布特性研究
李 涛, 张建丰, 高景灏
西安理工大学水利水电学院
摘要:
水分生产率是农业水资源管理的一个重要指标。为了揭示陕西省西安市农业水资源消耗与粮食生产的关系,采用空间分析方法,分析了2001—2014年西安市主要粮食作物(小麦、玉米)的灌溉水分生产率利用、作物水分生产率及总流入水分生产率的时空分布规律,并通过灰色关联理论分析主影响因素对作物水分生产率的影响。结果表明:西安地区水分生产率在空间上呈现显著聚集现象;各水分生产率指标均表现出空间分异性,同指标不同年份水分生产率空间分布类似;灌溉水分生产率值介于1.5 ~ 2.5 kg/m3,年际间波动较大,在2001—2010年随着时间而逐渐增大,在2011—2014年有减小趋势;作物水分生产率介于0.7 ~ 1.0 kg/m3,随时间增长无明显变化;年均气温、化肥施用量、有效灌溉面积、作物播种面积及农业机械总动力依次是影响该地区作物水分生产率的主要因素。
关键词:  水分生产率  节水灌溉指标  时空分布  影响因素  水资源管理
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.06.024
分类号:S271
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51379172)和陕西省教育厅重点实验室科研计划项目(16Js084)资助。
Spatio-temporal Distribution of Crop Water Productivity in Xi'an Region
LI Tao, ZHANG Jianfeng, GAO Jinghao
Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower, Xi’an University of Technology
Abstract:
Water productivity is an important index of agricultural water management. In order to reveal the relationship between agricultural water consumption and grain production in Xi'an region, the temporal and spatial distribution of irrigation water productivity, crop water productivity and total inflow water productivity for main grain crops (wheat and corn) from 2001 to 2014 were analyzed using the method of spatial analysis, and the influence factors of main crop water productivity were studied by the grey correlation theory. The results showed that the spatial distribution of crop water productivity had significant aggregation phenomenon in Xi'an region. All the indexes of water productivity showed spatial variability, and to the same index, the spatial distribution of water productivity was similar in different years. Irrigation water productivity ranged from 1.5 to 2.5 kg/m3 with large variation in different years, increased from 2001 to 2010 but decreased from 2011 to 2014; Crop water productivity ranged from 0.7 to 1.0 kg/m3, changed little with time. The average annual temperature, chemical fertilizer applied amount, effective irrigation area, crop planting area and the total power of agricultural machinery were the main factors affecting crop water productivity in Xi’an region.
Key words:  Water productivity  Water-saving irrigation  Spatio-temporal distribution  Influencing factors  Water resources management

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