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有机肥和无机肥对马铃薯生长发育及块茎产量的影响
张 亮1, 孙 磊1, 苏 航1, 于洪涛2, 符 强2, 范书华3, 程 瑶1
1.东北农业大学资源与环境学院;2.黑龙江省农业科学院绥化分院;3.黑龙江省农业科学院牡丹江分院
摘要:
在田间条件下,以‘尤金’和‘克新23号’为供试品种,研究了单施无机肥或有机肥以及有机肥和无机肥配施对马铃薯生长发育及块茎产量的影响,以对马铃薯生产中有机肥替代无机肥的可行性及替代效果进行验证和阐述。结果表明:施用有机肥可显著提高两品种的株高、茎粗、叶面积指数及叶片SPAD值(P<0.05),延长了‘尤金’地上茎叶的功能期,提高‘尤金’的平均薯重(P<0.05);单施无机肥可促进两个品种地上茎叶及根系的生长,提高单株结薯数和块茎干物质积累量。两个马铃薯品种的最高产量均为单施无机肥处理,其中‘尤金’施用P2O5 90 kg/hm2时达到最高产量41.50 t/hm2,‘克新23号’施用P2O5 135 kg/hm2时达到最高产量41.26 t/hm2。在本试验条件下,两个品种全部和部分有机替代的产量均为中等水平。
关键词:  马铃薯  有机肥  无机肥    产量
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.04.029
分类号:S532
基金项目:东北区马铃薯化学肥料和化学农药减施技术模式集成与示范(2018YFD0200807)和黑龙江省经济作物现代农业产业技术协同创新体系项目(HNWJZTX201701)资助。
Effects of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on Growth and Tuber Yield of Potato
ZHANG Liang1, SUN Lei1, SU Hang1, YU Hongtao2, FU Qiang2, FAN Shuhua3, CHENG Yao1
1.College of Resources and Environment, Northeast Agricultural University;2.Suihua Branch of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences;3.Mudanjiang Branch of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Abstract:
In order to discover the feasibility and effects of organic fertilizer substituting inorganic fertilizer (‘organic substitution’) in potato production, the effects of single and combined application of inorganic and organic fertilizers on the growth and yield of potato were studied by a field experiment conducted with ‘Youjin’ and ‘Kexin 23’ varieties. Results showed that the application of organic fertilizer significantly increased the plant heights, stem diameters, leaf area indexes and leaf SPAD values of the two varieties(P<0.05), and prolonged the functional period of the above-ground vines and leaves of ‘Youjin’, thereby increased the average tuber weight of ‘Youjin’ (P<0.05). The single application of inorganic fertilizer promoted the growth of vines and roots, the tuber numbers per plant and the accumulation of dry matter in tubers of two varieties. The highest tuber yields of the two varieties were both obtained under the treatment with inorganic fertilizer, which were 41.50 t/hm2 for ‘Youjin’ at P2O5 90 kg/hm2 application and 41.26 t/hm2 for ‘Kexin 23’ at P2O5 135 kg/hm2 application. Under the conditions of this experiment, partial or complete ‘organic substitution’ obtained the medium yields of the two potato varieties.
Key words:  Potato  Organic fertilizer  Inorganic fertilizer  Phosphorus  Yield

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