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滇中不同植物群落土壤养分及其计量比的变化特征
赵洛琪1, 付登高1, 吴晓妮2, 朱安琪1, 徐子萱1
1.云南大学生态学与环境学院暨云南省高原山地生态与退化环境修复重点实验室;2.云南大学生态与环境学院暨云南省高原山地生态与退化环境修复重点实验室
摘要:
为了研究不同植物群落土壤养分的时空动态变化特征及其养分计量比特征,选择滇中高原5种典型植物群落的土壤为研究对象,分析了旱、雨季不同营养元素及其计量比在土壤不同深度中的分布特征,并应用灰色关联分析探讨了不同群落的土壤综合肥力及其改良效应。结果表明:①在空间尺度上,土壤全氮、碱解氮、有效磷、速效钾和有机质含量随土壤深度增加而降低,全钾含量则随土壤深度增加而增加,而磷含量在土壤剖面中相对保持稳定;除全钾含量外,植物群落对上层土壤的改良效益较高,导致表层土壤养分明显高于中下层;②在时间尺度上,除常绿阔叶林雨季肥力略有下降外,其他4种群落雨季的综合肥力均比旱季有所增加。总体看来,常绿阔叶林对土壤养分的影响改良效益最高,而云南松林对土壤养分的改良效益最低;③不同植物群落上层土壤C:N、C:P和N:P总体上高于中层与下层土壤,雨季植物群落除桉树林外土壤C:N小于旱季,雨季土壤C:P、N:P总体上高于旱季;土壤养分化学计量比结果表明土壤氮、磷养分是限制植物群落发展的主要限制因子。因此,从不同群落对土壤养分的影响及其生态水文过程上差异的角度出发,建议在滇中脆弱区的生态修复过程中,尽量控制桉树林的种植面积,对云南松林进行抚育增加其中阔叶树种的比例,以此增加植物群落对土壤养分的改善效益,进而减少水土流失的风险,并为当地树种的选择从土壤养分变化的角度提供一定的参考。
关键词:  植物群落  土壤养分  时空变化  生态化学计量  土壤改良
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.06.020
分类号:S714;Q145
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31860133)、云南省地方本科高校基础研究联合专项(2017FH001-044)和云南省重点研发专项(2019BC001)资助。
Changes of Soil Nutrients and Stoichiometric Characteristics Under Different Vegetation Communities in Central Yunnan Province
ZHAO Luoqi,FU Denggao,WU Xiaoni,ZHU Anqi,XU Zixuan
School of Ecology and Environmental Sciences & Yunnan Key Laboratory for Plateau Mountain Ecology and Restoration of Degraded Environments
Abstract:
Soil samples under five typical vegetation communities were collected in 0-30, 30-60 and 60-90 cm depths in dry and rainy seasons in the central Yunnan plateau, nutrients were measured and stoichiometric parameters were calculated, comprehensive soil fertility and the improvement effects of different vegetation communities were compared using grey correlation analysis. The results showed that the contents of total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium and organic matter decreased but total potassium increased with the increase of depth, while the content of phosphorus remained relatively stable. Except total potassium, soil nutrients increased under vegetation communities in 0-30 cm depth, which were significantly higher than those in 30-60 cm and 60-90 cm depths. Soil comprehensive fertility decreased slightly for evergreen broad-leaved forest in rainy season, but increased for other four vegetation communities compared with in dry season. Generally speaking, the beneficial effect of evergreen broad-leaved forest on soil nutrient improvement was the highest, while that of Pinus yunnanensis forest was the lowest. C:N, C:P and N:P in 0–30 cm soil under different vegetation communities were higher than those in 30-60 cm and 60-90 cm depths, C:N in rainy season was lower than that in dry season except for Eucalyptus forest, C:P and N:P in rainy season were generally higher than those in dry season. Soil nitrogen and phosphorus were the main limiting factors for the development of vegetation communities. Therefore, considering the effects of different vegetation communities on soil nutrients and their differences in eco-hydrological processes, in the process of ecological restoration in fragile areas of central Yunnan, the planting area of Eucalyptus should be controlled as far as possible, and the proportion of broad-leaved trees should be increased in Pinus yunnanensis forests to promote soil nutrient accumulation and reducie soil and water losses. The above results can provide references for the selection of local tree species from the perspective of soil nutrients.
Key words:  Plant communities  Soil nutrient stoichiometry  Spatial-temporal variation  Eco-stoichiometry  Soil improvement

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