设为首页  |   加入收藏
引用本文:
【打印本页】   【下载PDF全文】   查看/发表评论  【EndNote】   【RefMan】   【BibTex】
←前一篇|后一篇→ 过刊浏览    高级检索
本文已被:浏览 221次   下载 70 本文二维码信息
码上扫一扫!
分享到: 微信 更多
配施有机肥减少太湖地区稻田土壤硝态氮淋失的机理研究
张 敏1, 姚元林2, 曾 科3, 李冰洋4, 田玉华3, 尹 斌3
1.洛阳师范学院生命科学学院;2.南京信息工程大学应用气象学院;3.土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所);4.河南省煤炭地质勘查研究总院
摘要:
采用田间小区试验,设计两种无机氮肥梯度,研究配施有机肥对太湖地区水稻季土壤氮素淋失的影响,并从水/土NO3--N迁移研究其对土壤NO3--N淋失的影响机制。设置的处理有:对照(CK)、常规施氮(CT)、减氮施肥(RT)、常规施氮下配施有机肥(CT+M)、减氮施肥下配施有机肥(RT+M)。结果发现:①除去2015年的CT处理,两年里30 cm处配施有机肥和单施无机肥处理之间的土壤NO3--N淋失均没有显著差异;80 cm处,CT+M处理的NO3--N淋失较CT处理减少41%,RT+M处理较RT处理减少12%。②无机肥处理的田面水NO3-- N和土壤淋溶水NO3-- N之间存在极显著线性相关,但是有机肥的参与会削弱二者之间的相关性。③配施有机肥有利于土壤有机质含量的提高,CT+M处理的有机质含量较CT处理提高6.7%。0 ~ 20 cm土层,配施有机肥处理土壤NO3--N含量明显高于无机肥处理;而20 ~ 40 cm土层,二者之间的土壤NO3--N含量差异很小。这表明配施有机肥是通过提高土壤有机质含量,增强土壤表层对NO3--N的吸附固持,从而抑制土壤NO3--N的向下迁移,而不是通过减少田面水NO3--N浓度来实现的。此外,配施有机肥还可以提高土壤质量和水稻产量,促进作物对土壤氮素的吸收,这也是稻田土壤NO3--N淋失减少的一个原因。研究结果为减少农田土壤NO– 3-N淋失提供了科学依据。
关键词:  水稻  有机肥  淋溶  机制  太湖地区
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.04.016
分类号:S143.1;S153.5
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目 (2017YFD0200104)资助。
Study on Mechanism of Reducing Nitrate Leaching with Organic Addition from Paddy Field in Taihu Lake Region
ZHANG Min1, YAO Yuanlin2, ZENG Ke3, LI Bingyang4, TIAN Yuhua3, YIN Bin3
1.College of Life Science, Luoyang Normal University;2.College of Applied Meteorology, Nanjing University of Information Technology;3.State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture,Institute of Soil Science,Chinese Academy of Sciences;4.Henan Province Research Institute of Coal Geological Prospecting
Abstract:
Field plot experiment with two nitrogen (N) applying rates was conducted to study the effect of organic addition on N leaching in rice season of Taihu Lake Region, and the mechanism was also studied through nitrate (NO3- -N) migration of water and soil. The designed treatments included no nitrogen (CK), conventional chemical N fertilizer (CT, N 300 kg/hm2), reducing N (RT, N 225 kg/hm2), CT+ rapeseed cake fertilizer (CT+M, M 2 250 kg/hm2), RT+rapeseed cake fertilizer (RT+M). The results showed that: 1) There was no significant difference in soil NO3- -N leaching between organic addition and inorganic fertilizer treatments at 30 cm depth during the two rice seasons of 2014 and 2015 except CT treatment in 2015. NO3- -N leaching at 80 cm depth in CT+M was 41% lower than that in CT, and RT+M produced 12% lower NO3- -N leaching loss compared to RT. 2) Floodwater NO3- -N under chemical N treatments was significant correlated with soil NO3- -N leaching, but the involvement of organic fertilizer weakened the correlation. 3) Organic addition increased soil organic matter content (SOM), and CT+M achieved 6.7% higher than CT. Organic N treatments showed higher soil NO3- -N content at 0–20 cm layer compared to chemical N treatments. And soil NO3- -N content at 20–40 cm layer differed little between organic N and chemical N treatments. These indicated that organic addition enhanced the absorption and fixation of NO3- -N by soil through the improved SOM and thus inhibited the migration of NO3- -N to deep soil. The reduced NO3- -N leaching under organic addition was not achieved by reducing floodwater NO3- -N concentration. Additionally, organic addition improved soil quality and rice yield, promoted crop N uptake, and thus could also explain the reduced NO3- -N leaching loss. The results provide scientific basis for decreasing NO3- -N leaching in farmland.
Key words:  Rice  Organic fertilizer  N leaching  Mechanism  Taihu Lake region

您是第3448164位访问者
版权所有 © 《土壤》编辑部
本系统由北京勤云科技发展有限公司设计   京ICP备09084417号