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有机物料对宅基地复垦土壤培肥效果评价
刘子骁, 邓良基, 周伟, 陈露丹, 邹光基
四川农业大学
摘要:
以成都平原宅基地复垦土壤为研究对象,设空白对照(CK)、常规化肥(CF)、全量秸秆还田(T1)、高量秸秆还田(T2)、全量菌渣还田(T3)、高量菌渣还田(T4)、全量猪粪还田(T5)、高量猪粪还田(T6)共8个处理,研究复垦宅基地耕作层(0 ~ 20 cm)土壤容重、孔隙度、酸碱度、总有机碳、全氮、全磷、全钾、碱解氮、有效磷、速效钾共10个指标的变化并开展综合评价。秸秆、菌渣、猪粪3种农业废弃物与化肥配施处理下宅基地复垦土壤的物理性状得到改善,总有机碳、全磷、碱解氮、有效磷与速效钾含量显著提高(P<0.05)。总有机碳及全量养分变化结果表明,T6处理提升效果最优;速效养分变化结果以T4处理提升效果最佳;综合肥力评价结果表明,T4处理提升效率最高,年均提升0.385级肥力。高量菌渣还田(T4)处理推荐为最优培肥方案:小麦季施菌渣8 507 kg/hm2、尿素307 kg/hm2、过磷酸钙825 kg/hm2、氯化钾38 kg/hm2,玉米季施菌渣9 411 kg/hm2、尿素324 kg/hm2、过磷酸钙925 kg/hm2、氯化钾172 kg/hm2
关键词:  复垦土地  农业废弃物还田  综合肥力评价
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2019.04.007
分类号:S154.1;X171.3
基金项目:四川省科技计划项目(2018NZZJ004,2019YFN0020,2016JY0166)资助。
Evaluation of Effects of Organic Materials on Soil Fertilization of Reclaimed Homestead
Liu Zixiao, Deng Liangji, Zhou Wei, Chen Ludan, Zou Guangji
Sichuan Agricultural University
Abstract:
A field experiment was conducted to determine the optimum fertilization scheme for reclaimed homestead in Chengdu Plain. Eight treatments were set up which included blank control (CK, no material input), conventional fertilization (CF, N 150 kg/hm2 and 180 kg/hm2, P2O5 75 kg/hm2 and 100 kg/hm2, K2O 75 kg/hm2 and 120 kg/hm2 in wheat and maize seasons, respectively), conventional volume straw returning (T1), high volume straw returning (T2, 1.5×T1), conventional volume mushroom residue returning (T3), high volume mushroom residue returning (T4, 1.5×T3), conventional volume pig manure returning (T5), and high volume pig manure returning (T6, 1.5×T5). Topsoil samples (0-20 cm) were collected and 10 indexes were measured which included soil bulk density, porosity, pH, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium, and then soil comprehensive fertility were evaluated. The results showed that the combined application of straw, mushroom residue and pig manure with chemical fertilizer improved the physical properties of the reclaimed soil and increased significantly the contents of total organic carbon, total phosphorus, alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium (P<0.05). T6 treatment had the best effects in promoting total organic carbon and total nutrients, while T4 treatment had the best effects in promoting available nutrients and soil comprehensive fertility with an average annual increase of 0.385 grade. Thus, it is recommended that high volume mushroom residue returning treatment (T4) as the optimum fertilization for reclaimed homestead in Chengdu Plain, i.e, applying 8 507 kg/hm2 and 9 411 kg/hm2 of mushroom residue, 307 kg/hm2 and 324 kg/hm2 of urea, 825 kg/hm2 and 925 kg/hm2 of calcium superphosphate, 38 kg/hm2 and 172 kg/hm2 of potassium chloride in wheat and maize seasons, respectively.
Key words:  Reclaimed land  Returning agricultural waste to field  Comprehensive fertility evaluation

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