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有机肥施用量对残塬沟壑区苹果园土壤优先流特征的影响
孟凡旭1, 王树森1, 马迎梅1, 张淑媛1, 秦富仓1, 罗于洋1, 王迪海2, 郭 宇1, 郭向东1, 程冀文1, 张 娜1, 张 平1
1.内蒙古农业大学沙漠治理学院,荒漠生态系统保护与修复国家林业局重点实验室,内蒙古自治区风沙物理与防沙治沙工程重点实验室;2.西北农林科技大学林学院
摘要:
为研究有机肥施用量对残塬沟壑区苹果园土壤优先流特征的影响,以残塬沟壑区苹果园为研究对象,采用室外染色示踪法结合形态学和统计学方法,对永寿县苹果园土壤垂直染色剖面进行定量分析,使用均方差决策法综合各优先流特征指标对0 kg/hm2(CK)、6 000 kg/hm2(T1)、9 000 kg/hm2(T2)、12 000 kg/hm2(T3)四种不同有机肥施用量苹果园土壤优先流特征进行研究。结果表明:①不同有机肥施用量样地土壤染色面积比随土壤深度的变化状况均与Logistic曲线拟合程度较好,决定系数R2均大于0.986。②选用的优先流特征指标中基质流入渗深度、优先流分数、变异系数和分形维数与均方差决策法计算出的优先流发育程度结果一致,优先流发展程度表现为T3>T2>T1>CK。但平均最大入渗深度、优先流区染色面积比和长度指数在评价优先流程度中结果有些偏差,表现为T3>T2>CK>T1。③利用均方差决策法得到的优先流指数由大到小为:T3(0.75)、T2(0.59)、T1(0.27)、CK(0.25),随着有机肥施肥量的增加,优先流程度也随之增加。本研究可为土壤优先流特征综合评价提供参考,并为残塬沟壑区果园合理施肥提供依据。
关键词:  残塬沟壑区  苹果园  染色示踪  土壤优先流  均方差决策法
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.06.023
分类号:S152.7
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC0504605)资助。
Effects of Different Application Rates of Organic Fertilizer on Preferential Flow Characteristics in Orchard in Plateau Gully Region
MENG Fanxu1, WANG Shusen1, MA Yingmei1, ZHANG Shuyuan1, QIN Fucang1, LUO Yuyang1, WANG Dihai2, GUO Yu1, GUO Xiangdong1, CHENG Jiwen1, ZHANG Na1, ZHANG Ping1
1.College of Desert Control Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of State Forest Administration for Desert Ecosystem Protection and Restoration, Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory of Aeolian Physics and Desertification Engineering, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University;2.College of Forestry,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University
Abstract:
In order to study the effect of organic fertilizer application on soil preferential flow characteristics of apple orchard in plateau gully region, field dyeing tracer, morphology and statistical methods were used to quantitative study the vertical dyeing soil profiles in an apple orchard in Yongshou County, Xianyang City of Shaanxi Province, the mean square error decision and preferential flow characteristic indexes were used to analyze the preferential flow characteristics in apple orchard soils under four organic fertilizer fertilization rates (0, CK; 6 000 kg/hm2, T1; 9 000 kg/hm2, T2; 1 2000 kg/hm2, T3). The results showed that: 1) The change of soil dyeing area ratio with soil depth of all soil profiles was well fitted to the logistic curve, and the determination coefficient R2 was greater than 0.986. 2) The results of matrix infiltration depth, preferential flow fraction, coefficient of variation and fractal dimension in the selected preferential flow characteristic indexes were consistent with those calculated by mean square deviation decision method, the development degree of preferential flow was T3 > T2 > T1 > CK. However, the average maximum infiltration depth, the ratio of dyeing area to preferential flow zone and the length index showed some deviations in the assessment of preferential flow degree, which was shown as T3 > T2 > CK > T1. 3) The preferential flow index obtained by mean square error decision method was 0.75 for T3, 0.59 for T2, 0.27 for T1 and 0.25 for CK, indicating the preferential flow degree is increased with the increase of fertilizer application rate. The study can provide a reference for a comprehensive evaluation of soil preferential flow characteristics and provide a basis for reasonable fertilization for orchards in plateau gully region.
Key words:  Gully region of Plateau  Orchard  Dyeing tracer  Soil preferential flow  Mean square error decision method

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