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滇池流域磷矿山区优势植物叶片与土壤养分生态化学计量特征
赵洛琪,吴晓妮,付登高,徐子萱,朱安琪
1.云南大学生态与环境学院暨云南省高原山地生态与退化环境修复重点实验室, 昆明 650091;2.昆明学院农学与生命科学学院, 昆明 650214
摘要:
为了研究滇池流域磷矿山区不同生活型优势植物叶片和土壤的养分含量及其计量比特征,选取流域内磷矿退化山区内4种常见优势植物(马桑、云南松、蔗茅和紫茎泽兰)作为研究对象,分析植物叶片及土壤的C、N、P含量。结果表明:云南松影响下的土壤有机质、全氮、碱解氮和有效磷含量最高,分别为22.42 g/kg、1.85 g/kg、140.78 mg/kg、1 048.89 mg/kg,全磷含量最低,为2.51 g/kg;云南松叶片C含量为492.86 g/kg,显著高于其他植物,而N、P含量分别为11.22和2.78 g/kg,显著低于其他植物;土壤N含量与叶片C含量显著正相关,而与叶片N:P比显著负相关。研究结果表明:磷矿山地土壤C、N养分是限制植物生长的主要限制因子;在土壤C、N养分相对匮乏的立地条件下,云南松和蔗茅叶片能够固定更多的C,而马桑叶片能够固定较多的N。因此,结合不同生活型植物的属性特征及该区域内群落的演替特征,建议磷矿山区废弃地的生态恢复可以构建蔗茅和马桑为主的植物群落,随后种植云南松形成针叶林以增加土壤C含量,并在恢复后期种植固N阔叶树种形成针阔混交林,以达到全面改善土壤养分、保持水土并控制土壤P素流失的目的。
关键词:  磷矿山区  植物生活型  生态化学计量  土壤养分  水土保持
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2021.02.023
分类号:S714;Q145
基金项目:云南省地方本科高校基础研究联合专项(2017FH001-044)、国家自然科学基金项目(31860133)和云南省重点研发专项(2019BC001)资助。
Eco-stoichiometric Characteristics of Nutrients in Dominant Plant Leaves and Soil in Phosphorus Mine Area of Dianchi Basin
ZHAO Luoqi1,2, WU Xiaoni3, FU Denggao1,2, XU Zixuan1,2, ZHU Anqi1,2
1.School of Ecology and Environmental Sciences &2.Yunnan Key Laboratory for Plateau Mountain Ecology and Restoration of Degraded Environments, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China;3.School of Agronomy and Life Sciences, Kunming University, Kunming 650214, China
Abstract:
In order to study the nutrient contents and their eco-stoichiometric characteristics of soil and leaves from different life forms plants in phosphorus mine area of Dianchi Lake Basin, four dominant plants (Coriaria nepalensis, Pinus yunnanensis, Erianthus fulvus and Eupatorium adenophorum) in degraded mountain area of phosphorus mine were selected to analyze the contents of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in plant leaves and soil. The results indicated that soil under Pinus yunnanensis was the highest in the contents of organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen and available phosphorus, which were 22.42 g/kg, 1.85 g/kg, 140.78 mg/kg and 1 048.89 mg/kg, respectively, but the lowest in the content of total P, which was 2.51 g/kg. C content in leaves of Pinus yunnanensis was 492.86 g/kg, significantly higher than other plants, while N and P contents were 11.22 and 2.78 g/kg, significantly lower than other plants. Soil N content was positively correlated with leaf C content, but negatively correlated with leaf N:P ratio. The results showed that soil C and N were the main limiting factors for plant growth in phosphorus mine area. Under relatively deficient soil C and N, Pinus yunnanensis and Erianthus fulvus leaves could fix more C, while Coriaria nepalensis leaves fix more N. Therefore, it is suggested that the ecological restoration of abandoned land in phosphorus mine area can be achieved by constructing plant communities dominated by Coriaria nepalensis and Erianthus fulvus, and then planting Pinus yunnanensis to form coniferous forest in order to increase soil carbon, and planting nitrogen-fixing broadleaved tree species in the later stage of restoration to form coniferous broadleaved mixed forest in order to improve soil nutrients, conserve soil and water, and prevent soil phosphorus loss.
Key words:  Phosphorite mountain area  Plant life-form  Eco-stoichiometry  Soil nutrients  Water and soil conservation

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