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粉垄耕作对红壤理化性质及红薯产量的影响
蒋发辉1, 高 磊1, 韦本辉2, 李录久3, 彭新华1
1.中国科学院南京土壤研究所;2.广西农业科学院经济作物研究所;3.安徽省农业科学院土壤肥料研究所
摘要:
为改善红壤板结状况,缓解红壤区季节性干旱对作物的胁迫,本研究在江西省选择发育于第四纪红黏土的典型红壤设置传统旋耕15 cm(RT)和粉垄耕作20 cm(FL20)、30 cm(FL30)、40 cm(FL40)等4种耕作处理,通过监测土壤耕层厚度、容重、水分、养分的变化及红薯产量,以期揭示粉垄耕作对红壤理化性质和红薯产量的影响。结果表明:与RT处理相比,FL30和FL40处理显著增加了耕层厚度,降低了土壤容重,提高了土壤饱和导水率;粉垄耕作显著提高了降雨后土壤水分下渗速度、下渗量、下渗深度以及耕层土壤储水量,并导致干旱期土壤含水量的增幅大于湿润期。粉垄耕作导致土壤氮、磷等养分下移,形成“上减下增”的分布格局,与RT处理(23.10 t/hm2)相比,粉垄耕作20 ~ 40 cm(FL20、FL30和FL40)处理还提高了鲜薯产量89% ~ 117%。因此,粉垄耕作显著改善了旱地红壤物理性质,改变了土壤养分在耕层中的分布,并有效调蓄了土壤水分合理分配,产能提升效果显著。 关键词:土壤物理性质;粉垄耕作;土壤储水量;红薯产量
关键词:  土壤物理性质  粉垄耕作  土壤储水量  红薯产量
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.03.024
分类号:S341;S152
基金项目:中国科学院重点部署项目(KFZD-SW-112-05)、江苏省重点研发计划项目(BE2017385)和国家自然科学基金项目(41725004;41571130053)资助。
Impact of Fenlong Tillage on Soil Physiochemical Properties and Sweet Potato Yield in Dryland Red Soil
JIANG Fahui1, GAO Lei1, WEI Benhui2, LI Lujiu3, PENG Xinhua1
1.Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences;2.Cash Crops Research Institute, Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences;3.Institute of Soil and Fertilizer, Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Abstract:
To improve clayey soil structure and alleviate seasonal drought stress in the red soil region of south China, this study investigated the impacts of different tillage treatments on plough layer thickness, soil bulk density, moisture, nutrients and sweet potato yield. The tillage treatments included: conventional rotary tillage to 15 cm depth (RT) as a control, Fenlong tillage to 20 cm (FL20), 30 cm (FL30) and 40 cm (FL40) depths. The results showed, compared with RT, FL30 and FL40 treatments significantly increased the thickness of plough layer, reduced soil bulk density and enhanced saturated hydraulic conductivity. Felong tillage increased the rate, amount and depth of water infiltration, as consequently enhanced soil water storage which was greater in the dry season than in the wet season. Fenlong tillage further redistributed nutrients down to deep soil layer, causing “less content of nutrients in the surface layer but higher content in the deep layer”. Therefore, compared to RT, Fenlong tillage promoted sweet potato yield by 89%–117%. In conclusion, Fenlong tillage can remediate soil physical properties, redistribute soil nutrients in the plough layer, increase soil water storage, and then enhance crop yield significantly.
Key words:  Soil physical properties  Fenlong tillage  Soil water storage  Sweet potato yield

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