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土壤活性有机质组分的光谱分析方法及应用
周 萌, 肖 扬, 刘晓冰
东北农业大学资源与环境学院
摘要:
光谱分析方法是利用光谱学的原理和实验方法,来确定所测物质的结构及其化学组成和相对含量的方法。土壤活性有机质(labile organic matter,LOM)是生态系统管理措施早期且快速的敏感指标,对土壤质量的变化研究有重要意义。近年来,土壤LOM的含量变化逐渐成为土壤科学工作者研究的焦点。土壤LOM的组分有物理、化学、生物学和联合分组所分离出来的各种不同组分。土壤LOM组分的数量测定方法具有不确定性和难比较性,而应用光谱特性的质量变化的分析方法可以补充和验证数量变化的规律,由此获得准确、详实的结果。本文对利用现代分子技术进行有机质结构表征的紫外-可见光谱(UV-vis)、傅里叶变换红外光谱(FTIR)、三维荧光光谱(3DEEM)和固态核磁共振碳谱(13C-NMR)的光谱分析方法进行了详述,并对这些方法在LOM研究的应用进展进行了概述。提出应针对不同的研究目的,选择适合的光谱分析技术,推荐了每种土壤LOM组分所适用的光谱分析方法,为研究解析土壤LOM的数量和质量变化规律提供了技术参考。
关键词:  土壤活性有机质  光谱技术  结构分析  土壤质量
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.06.001
分类号:S158.5;O433.4
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目 (2017YFC0504202、GX18B028),国家自然科学基金项目 (41671274),ANSO世界黑土联合会项目 (ANSO-PA-2020-12)和国家土壤质量数据中心观测监测项目 (ZX02S080400)资助。
Methods and Applications of Spectral Analysis for Soil Labile Organic Matter Components
ZHOU Meng, XIAO Yang, LIU Xiaobing
College of Resources and Environment, Northeast Agricultural University
Abstract:
Spectral analysis is a method that applies the principles of spectroscopy and experimental means to determine the structure, chemical composition and relative content of the measured substance. Soil labile organic matter (LOM) is an early and rapid sensitive indicator to ecosystem management measures, which is of significance to the study of soil quality changes. Soil LOM has been a study focus in recent years, it has various components separated by physical, chemical, biological and combined grouping. The quantitative methods in determining soil LOM components have uncertainty and difficulty, in which the analytical approach of quality change by applying spectral analysis can complement and validate the quantitative changes in obtaining accurate and detailed results. In this paper, the spectroscopic analysis methods for structural characterization of organic matter using modern molecular technologies including ultraviolet-visible spectrum (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR), three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum (3DEEM) and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum (13C-NMR) were described in detail, and their applications and advances in soil LOM determination were also summarized. It is proposed that appropriate spectral analysis techniques should be selected according the study purposes. Specific spectral analysis method is recommended suitable for each soil LOM component. The paper could provide a technical reference for examining the quantity and quality changes of soil LOM.
Key words:  Soil labile organic matter  Spectral technique  Structural analysis  Soil quality

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