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不同施肥对鲜食玉米生长及肥料农学利用率的影响
王东升1,2, 黄忠阳1, 吴旭东1, 刘庆叶1, 陈莉莉1, 戎茸1, 王蓓1, 李伟明1
1.南京市蔬菜科学研究所, 南京 210042;2.南京农业大学江苏省固体有机废弃物资源化高技术研究重点实验室, 南京 210095
摘要:
通过田间小区试验,分析比较了不同施肥处理对鲜食玉米生长指标、产量、品质、光合特性、土壤酶活性以及肥料农学利用率等指标的影响。试验共设置5个处理,分别为:CK(不施用任何肥料),T1(常规化肥用量+普通有机肥),T2(常规化肥用量+生物有机肥),T3(化肥减施30%+生物有机肥),T4(化肥减施30%+生物有机肥+氨基酸叶面肥)。结果表明:①与CK相比,各施肥处理玉米产量、品质、光合特性及土壤酶活性均呈增加趋势;②常规化肥用量条件下,生物有机肥处理(T2)与普通有机肥处理(T1)相比,玉米株高、茎粗、SPAD值分别增加了11.91%、5.07%、5.25%;可溶性蛋白、可溶性糖及Vc含量分别增加了5.39%、6.48%和16.62%;玉米叶片光合速率、气孔导度和蒸腾速率分别增加了3.44%、4.22%和16.19%;③化肥减量条件下,T4处理较T3处理,玉米叶绿素含量、可溶性糖含量、土壤蔗糖酶活性分别增加16.26%、14.05%和23.82%,叶片胞间CO2浓度显著降低41.05%;氮肥、磷肥和钾肥的农学利用率分别提高71.10%、146.25%和146.25%。综上所述,在化肥减施条件下,配施生物有机肥和氨基酸叶面肥可以提高作物产量、改善作物品质、促进土壤蔗糖酶活性的增加、提高肥料农学利用率,值得在田间进行示范推广。
关键词:  鲜食玉米  化肥减施  生物有机肥  氨基酸叶面肥  肥料农学利用率
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2021.02.012
分类号:S145.2
基金项目:江苏省重点实验室开放基金项目(BM201101301)和南京市蔬菜科学研究所社发项目资助。
Effects of Different Fertilization on Fruit Maize Growth and Fertilizer Agronomic Utilization Rate
WANG Dongsheng1,2, HUANG Zhongyang1, WU Xudong1, LIU Qingye1, CHEN Lili1, RONG Rong1, WANG Bei1, LI Weiming1
1.Nanjing Institute of Vegetable Science, Nanjing 210042, China;2.Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab of Solid Organic Waste Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
Abstract:
In order to study the effects of different fertilization on the growth of fruit maize and the fertilizer agronomic utilization efficiency, the effects of different fertilization on the growth index, yield, quality, photosynthetic characteristics, soil enzyme activity and fertilizer agronomic utilization rate of fruit maize were analyzed and compared through field plot experiments, in which five treatments were designed:CK (no fertilizer), T1 (conventional fertilizer + conventional organic fertilizer), T2 (conventional fertilizer + bio-organic fertilizer), T3 (reduced fertilizer by 30% + bio-organic fertilizer), T4 (reduced fertilizer by 30% + bio-organic fertilizer + amino acid foliar fertilizer). The results showed that:1) Compared with CK, maize yield, quality, photosynthetic characteristics and soil enzyme activity increased under differewt fertilization treatments; 2) Compared with T1, maize height, stem diameter and SPAD value of T2 increased by 11.91%, 5.07% and 5.25%, respectively; soluble protein, soluble sugar and Vc contents increased by 5.39%, 6.48% and 16.62% respectively; photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate of maize leaves increased by 3.44%, 4.22% and 16.19% respectively; 3) Under the reduced fertilizer application, compared to T3, the contents of promoted leaf chlorophyll content, maize soluble sugar content, soil sucrose content and enzyme activity by 16.26%, 14.05% and 23.82% respectively; the leaf intercellular CO2 concentration of T4 increased redaced by 41.05%, and the agronomic utilization efficiencies of N, P and K fertilizers increased by 71.10%, 146.25% and 146.25%, respectively. In conclusion, under the condition of reduced fertilizer application, the combination of bio-organic fertilizer and amino acid foliar fertilizer can improve crop yield and quality, soil invertase activity and fertilizer agronomic efficiency, which is worthy of field application.
Key words:  Fruit maize  Fertilizer reduction  Bio-organic fertilizer  Amino acid foliar fertilizer  Fertilizer agronomic utilization rate

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