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不同有机物料投入下黄河故道土壤有机碳积累特征的研究
杨苏1,2, 刘耀斌2, 王静2, 汪吉东1, 张永春1, 李辉信2, 艾玉春1
1.农业农村部江苏耕地保育科学观测实验站/江苏省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所, 南京 210095;2.南京农业大学资源与环境科学学院, 南京 210095
摘要:
潮土有机质含量低、结构差是限制黄河故道区作物优质高产的主要原因。通过连续施用不同种类及用量有机物料,探究有机物料投入下,黄河故道区土壤有机质的积累特征,为该区土壤快速固碳提供理论依据和参考方案。试验采用随机区组设计,设置7个处理:单施氮磷钾肥作为对照(CK),其他处理在单施氮磷钾肥的基础上增施有机肥6 000 kg/hm2(M1)、有机肥12 000 kg/hm2(M2)、树枝菌渣6 000 kg/hm2(B1)、树枝菌渣12 000 kg/hm2(B2)、秸秆菌渣6 000 kg/hm2(S1)、秸秆菌渣12 000 kg/hm2(S2)。与CK相比,外源有机物料施用会显著增加玉米产量和有机质含量,增幅范围分别为21.75%~58.32%和37.4%~70.1%,玉米产量的增加直接导致进入土壤的秸秆残渣及根茬碳相应增加38.9~76.9 kg/hm2,致使B2处理增产保肥效果最佳。就有机物料种类而言,用量为12 000 kg/hm2的树枝菌渣对土壤活性有机质的提升幅度最大,比相同用量的有机肥和秸秆菌渣高26.2%和57.0%,秸秆菌渣的碳库管理指数最高,但与树枝菌渣相比无显著差异。树枝菌渣由于碳氮比高,在土壤中分解慢,相同用量下,矿化消耗的碳量低于秸秆菌渣和有机肥,单位碳投入下的呼吸量比秸秆菌渣和有机肥低42.3%和29.3%。用量为12 000 kg/hm2的树枝菌渣由于碳投入量大、矿化消耗少,对黄河故道潮土有机质提升效果最好,玉米增产最明显。
关键词:  土壤呼吸总量  有机物料  有机质积累  碳库管理指数
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2021.02.020
分类号:S158.3
基金项目:江苏省农业科技自主创新资金项目(CX(17)-1001)、国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD0800301)和江苏省重点研发计划项目(BE2019378)资助。
Soil Organic Carbon Accumulation in Old Riverway of Yellow River Under Different Organic Material Inputs
YANG Su1,2, LIU Yaobin2, WANG Jing2, WANG Jidong1, ZHANG Yongchun1, LI Huixin2, AI Yuchun1
1.Agricultural Science and Technology Research Institute of Agricultural and Rural Sciences, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210095, China;2.College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
Abstract:
The low organic matter content and poor structure of tidal soil are the main factors limiting the high quality and high yield of crops in the old riverway of the Yellow River. In this study, through the continuous application of different kinds and amounts of organic materials in field plot experiment with randomized block design, the accumulation of soil organic matter was studied to provide theoretical basis and reference for rapid carbon sequestration in the study area. Seven treatments were designed, including:1) CK, NPK fertilizers used; 2) M1, CK + 6 000 kg/hm2 organic fertilizer; 3) M2, CK + 12 000 kg/hm2 organic fertilizer; 4) B1, CK + 6 000 kg/hm2 dendritic residue; 5) B2, CK + 12 000 kg/hm2 dendritic residue; 6) S1, CK + 6 000 kg/hm2 straw slag; 7) S2, CK + 12 000 kg/hm2 straw slag, three repeat for each treatment. The results showed that, compared with CK, organic material input significantly increased corn yield and soil organic matter content by 21.75%-58.32% and 37.4%-70.1%, respectively. The yield increase directly led carbon increase from straw residues and roots into soil by 38.9-76.9 kg/hm2, among of which, B2 treatment had the best effect. For organic material types, B2 treatment increased soil active organic matter most, which was 26.2% and 57.0% higher than that of M2 and S2 treatments, respectively. Meanwhile, S treatments had the highest C pool management index, but not significantly different to B treatments. Due to the high C/N ratio, dendritic slag is slowly decomposed in soil, the amount of carbon consumed by the mineralization is lower than those of straw residue and organic fertilizer, and the respiration rate per unit carbon input was 42.3% and 29.3% lower than those of straw residue and organic fertilizer. In conclusion, 12 000 kg/hm2 dendritic slag has the largest carbon input, less mineralization consumption and best effects in promoting organic matter content of the tidal soil in the old riverway of the Yellow River and in increasing corn yield.
Key words:  Total soil respiration  Organic material  Organic matter accumulation  Carbon pool management index

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