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长期施用有机物料对旱地红壤磷组分及磷素有效性的影响
陈利军, 蒋瑀霁, 王浩田, 赵其国, 孙 波
土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所)
摘要:
针对中亚热带第四纪红黏土发育的红壤旱地,建立了玉米单作系统等碳量投入有机物料的田间试验,利用不同的磷分级方法研究了不同有机物料施用对土壤磷组分的影响,构建了不同磷组分的含量与土壤全磷及有效磷之间的回归方程,明确了不同磷组分对土壤磷活化系数(PAC)及磷肥(表观和经济)利用率的影响。连续7 a的试验结果表明:施用有机物料可以增加土壤PAC和磷肥利用率,并以秸秆猪粪9∶1配施(NPKS/M)处理效果最佳,显著高于常规施肥处理(NPK);施用有机物料显著提升了土壤有机磷含量,且与土壤有效磷含量显著正相关,其对土壤PAC及磷肥(表观和经济)利用率影响显著。施用有机物料通过影响土壤有机碳、全氮、碱解氮、交换性K+以及交换性Al3+含量影响土壤磷的有效性。
关键词:  红壤  有机物料  土壤磷分级  磷活化系数
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.03.004
分类号:S158.9;S154.31
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0200300)、中国科学院重点部署项目(KFZD-SW-112, KFJ-SW-YW032)和国家优秀青年基金项目(41922048)资助。
Effects of Long-term Application of Organic Materials on Phosphorus Fractions and Availability in Red Soil
CHEN Lijun, JIANG Yuji, WANG Haotian, ZHAO Qiguo, SUN Bo
State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
A 7-year field experiment was conducted on the dry land of red soil derived from Quaternary red clay in the middle subtropical zone under the same carbon input from organic materials in corn monocropping system, and the effects of different organic material application on soil phosphorus fractions using different phosphorus fraction methods, the correlation between different phosphorus fractions with soil total phosphorus and available phosphorus, and the effects of different phosphorus fractions on soil phosphorus activation coefficient (PAC), the apparent and economic utilization rates of phosphate fertilizer were studied. The results showed that the application of organic materials increased soil PAC and the utilization rates of phosphorous fertilizer, and the best effect was obtained by applying 9∶1 (NPKS/M) with straw pig manure, which was significantly higher than those of conventional fertilization treatment (NPK). The application of organic materials significantly increased the content of soil organic phosphorus, which was significantly positively correlated with the content of soil available phosphorus, thus, had significant effects on soil PAC and the apparent and economic utilization rates of phosphate fertilizer. In addition, the application of organic materials also affected the availability of soil phosphorus by affecting the contents of soil organic carbon, total nitrogn, auailable nitroger, exchangeable K+ and Al3+.
Key words:  Red soil  Organic material  Soil phosphorus fraction  Phosphorus activation coefficient

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