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菜地土壤解磷微生物特征及其在磷形态转化调控中的作用
李慧敏, 王 瑞, 施卫明, 仲月明, 李奕林
土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所)
摘要:
目前蔬菜生产存在为追求高产而盲目“高磷投入”的现象,尽管持续高量的磷肥投入导致菜地土壤磷库储量较之粮田更加丰富,但土壤中的磷极易被固定形成无效态磷,导致菜地磷肥当季利用率低以及磷高积累带来的环境风险。而解磷微生物可以利用自身的代谢功能驱动土壤难溶性磷向有效磷的转化,从而直接影响土壤磷素周转及供磷水平。本文探讨了菜地土壤解磷微生物特征、根际磷素周转及其对蔬菜磷吸收利用的贡献、磷肥及碳源种类对解磷微生物的影响、解磷微生物在菜地面源污染防控中的作用及其今后高效应用研究方向,旨在为今后提高蔬菜磷肥利用率,以及充分利用菜地累积态磷,从而进一步降低环境风险提供参考。
关键词:  解磷微生物  菜地  磷肥  根际  有机肥
DOI:DOI: 10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.04.003
分类号:S158.3;Q939.96
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目(31872957)资助。
Characteristics of Soil Phosphorus-solubilizing Microorganisms and Their Role in Regulation of Phosphorus Morphological Transformation in Vegetable Fields
LI Huimin, WANG Rui, SHI Weiming, ZHONG Yueming, LI Yilin
State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
The phenomenon of blind high-input of phosphorus is still existed at present in vegetable production in the pursuit of high yield. Although sustained high-input of phosphate fertilizer has resulted in soil phosphorus pool in vegetable fields being more abundant than in grain fields, phosphorus in soil is easily fixed to form invalid phosphorus. High input of phosphate fertilizer not only leads to low utilization of fertilizer in season, but also brings great environmental risks by high phosphorus accumulation in the soil. However, phosphorus-solubilizing microorganisms (PSMs) can transform insoluble phosphorus into available one by their own metabolism function, which directly affects the turnover of soil phosphorus and the supply of phosphorus. This paper discussed the characteristics of soil PSMs in vegetable fields, their role in regulating rhizosphere phosphorus turnover and utilization by vegetable, and in preventing and controlling of non-point source pollution, the effects of phosphate fertilizer and carbon source types on PSMs, as well as further research direction of efficient application of PSMs. The aim of this paper is to provide theoretical support for improving the utilization of seasonal phosphate fertilizer and making full use of phosphorus accumulated in vegetable fields in order to further reduce environmental risks.
Key words:  Phosphorous-solubilizing microorganism  Vegetable field  Phosphate fertilizer  Rhizosphere  Organic fertilizer

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