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生物质炭及硝化/脲酶抑制剂对滨海盐渍土土壤盐分及作物氮素吸收利用的影响
唐冲1,2, 杨劲松1, 姚荣江1, 王胜3, 王相平4, 谢文萍4
1.土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所), 南京 210008;2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;3.山东胜伟盐碱地科技有限公司;4.土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所)
摘要:
为研究生物质炭及硝化/脲酶抑制剂对滨海盐渍土土壤盐碱、氮素有效性、作物氮素吸收利用以及土壤氮平衡的影响,通过盆栽试验,共设9个处理:不施氮肥、常规化肥、生物质炭+常规化肥、常规化肥+硝化抑制剂DCD、常规化肥+脲酶抑制剂NBPT、常规化肥+DCD+NBPT、生物质炭+常规化肥+DCD、生物质炭+常规化肥+NBPT、生物质炭+常规化肥+DCD+NBPT,以典型耐盐作物大麦为研究对象开展研究。结果表明:①各施氮肥处理均增加了盐分的淋洗,各生物质炭处理显著增加了10~20 cm土层的土壤电导率。土壤电导率高的土壤pH较低,生物质炭处理对土壤pH略有降低的作用。②NBPT和DCD添加增加了大麦籽粒产量,配合生物质炭的施用增产更多,但是却降低了秸秆的产量。NBPT和DCD添加均增加了大麦植株的吸氮量,其中NBPT添加增加了大麦秸秆和籽粒的全氮含量,但是配合生物质炭施用又有降低作用,其余抑制剂处理均降低了大麦籽粒和秸秆的全氮含量。③DCD和NBPT添加均提高了氮肥利用效率,配合生物质炭施用对各指标的增加更明显。④对作物收获后土壤残留无机氮含量,添加DCD处理相比常规化肥处理有所降低,添加NBPT处理相比常规化肥处理有所增加。添加DCD和NBPT处理均降低了氮的表观损失。因此,在滨海盐渍土中,通过在尿素中添加DCD和NBPT,可以提高作物产量和氮肥利用率,其中同时添加生物质炭、DCD和NBPT处理在产量提升、氮素高效利用及减少氮损失等方面表现更好。
关键词:  生物质炭  硝化/脲酶抑制剂  滨海盐渍土  土壤盐分  氮肥利用率
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2021.02.011
分类号:S156.4+2;S143.1+6
基金项目:国家自然科学基金委员会–山东联合基金重点项目(U1806215)、国家自然科学基金面上项目(41977015)和国家重点研发计划项目(2019YFD0900702,2019YFD1002702)资助。
Effects of Biochar and Nitrification / Urease Inhibitors on Soil Salinity and Crop Nitrogen Absorption and Utilization in Coastal Saline Soil
TANG Chong1,2, YANG Jinsong1, YAO Rongjiang1, WANG Sheng3, WANG Xiangping4, XIE Wenping4
1.State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China;2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;3.Shandong Sunway Saline and Alkali Land Technology Co. Ltd.;4.State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
In order to study the effects of biochar and nitrification/urease inhibitors on soil salinity and alkalinity, nitrogen availability, crop nitrogen absorption and utilization, and soil nitrogen balance in coastal saline soil, a pot experiment was carried out with barley, a typical salt tolerant crop, as the research object, a total of 9 treatments were set up in the experiment:applying no nitrogen fertilizer, conventional fertilizer, biochar + conventional fertilizer, conventional fertilizer + nitrification inhibitor DCD, conventional fertilizer + urease inhibitor NBPT, conventional fertilizer + DCD + NBPT, biochar + conventional fertilizer + DCD, biochar + conventional fertilizer + NBPT, biochar + conventional fertilizer + DCD + NBPT. The results showed that:1) All nitrogen fertilizer treatments increased salt leaching, and all biochar treatments significantly increased 10-20 cm soil EC. The soil with higher EC had lower pH, and biochar treatment slightly reduced soil pH.2) NBPT and DCD increased the grain yield of barley, and the application of biochar increased the yield of barley more but decreased the yield of straws. NBPT and DCD increased nitrogen uptake of barley plants, and NBPT increased total nitrogen contents in barley straws and grains, but decreased with biochar application, and other inhibitor treatments decreased total nitrogen contents in barley grains and straws. 3) Both DCD and NBPT improved nitrogen use efficiency, and the effects were enhanced with the application of biochar. 4) Compared with the conventional fertilizer treatment, the content of soil residual inorganic nitrogen in treatment with DCD was lower while that in treatment with NBPT was higher. DCD and NBPT added treatments reduced the apparent loss of nitrogen. Therefore, adding DCD and NBPT to urea can promote crop yield and nitrogen use efficiency in coastal saline soil, and the treatment with biochar + DCD + NBPT performs better in increasing crop yield, nitrogen efficient use and reducing nitrogen loss.
Key words:  Biochar  Nitrification/urease inhibitor  Coastal saline soil  Soil salinity  Nitrogen use efficiency

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