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籽粕熏蒸对哈密瓜发病土壤真核生物群落组成和变化的影响
彭俊伟1,2, 申民翀1,2, 董元华1, 李建刚1
1.中国科学院土壤环境与污染修复重点实验室(南京土壤研究所), 南京 210008;2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
摘要:
利用十字花科白菜型和芥菜型籽粕作为土壤绿色熏蒸剂,研究了其对哈密瓜土传病害的防治效果以及该过程中真核微生物群落在哈密瓜整个生育期的动态变化。结果表明:两种籽粕对哈密瓜土传病害均有显著防控效果,与化学熏蒸剂棉隆效果相似,但对土壤中微生物群落的扰动以及根际微生物的富集存在明显不同的影响。白菜型和芥菜型籽粕均能显著降低土壤中真核微生物的丰富度和多样性,并有选择性地促进土壤中某些特定微生物的恢复和富集,使得有益微生物在根际定殖。在整个过程中,子囊菌门(Ascomycota)真菌主导了微生物群落结构的变化,且在根际有益微生物的群落构建中起到了重要作用,其下属曲霉属(Aspergillus)和毛壳菌属(Chaetomium)中的慢性曲霉(Aspergillus lentulus)和未知物种(OTU_213)与哈密瓜发病率间呈现出显著负相关关系,可能抑制了病原菌群在根际的定殖。而棉隆处理对根际有益微生物的富集影响较小,对土壤微生物群落结构的作用也不显著。
关键词:  籽粕  棉隆  熏蒸  土传病害  真核微生物群落
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2021.02.015
分类号:S436.5
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0200305;2017YFD0200604)和国家自然科学基金面上项目(41977055)资助。
Effects of Seed Meal Fumigation on Composition and Change of Eukaryotic Microbial Community in Cantaloupe Disease Soil
PENG Junwei1,2, SHEN Minchong1,2, DONG Yuanhua1, LI Jiangang1
1.Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China;2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Abstract:
In this study, the control effects on soil-borne diseases in cantaloupe and the dynamic change of eukaryotic microbial community during the whole growth period were investigated by using the Brassica campes and Brassica juncea seed meals as soil green fumigants. The results showed that the two kinds of seed meals could effectively control soil-borne diseases, showing a similar control efficacy but significant differences in the disturbance of soil microbial communities and the enrichment of rhizosphere microorganisms to that of dazomet. Both Brassica campes and Brassica juncea seed meals not only significantly reduced the richness and diversity of eukaryotic microorganisms but also selectively promoted the recovery and enrichment of specific microorganisms in the soil, thus, colonized the beneficial microorganisms in the rhizosphere. During the process, phylum Ascomycota dominated the change of the microbial community composition and played an important role in the construction of beneficial microbial communities in the rhizosphere. Moreover, the abundance of species Aspergillus lentulus and unknown species (OTU_213) showed a significant negative correlation with incidence rate, indicating they inhibited the colonization of pathogenic fungi in the rhizosphere. On the contrary, dazomet had less effect on the colonization of rhizospheric beneficial microorganisms and the composition of soil microbial community than seed meals.
Key words:  Seed meal  Dazomet  Fumigation  Soil-borne diseases  Eukaryotic microbial communities

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