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根系分泌物与土传病害的关系研究进展
任改弟1,2,3, 王光飞1,2, 马艳1,2,4
1.江苏省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所, 南京 210014;2.农业部长江中下游平原农业环境重点实验室, 南京 210014;3.江苏大学生命科学研究院, 江苏镇江 212013;4.江苏大学环境与安全工程学院, 江苏镇江 212013
摘要:
根系分泌物是植物-土壤-病原微生物相互作用的桥梁,是决定病原菌-作物关系的关键生态因子,影响着土传病害的发生与发展。本文阐述了根系分泌物的定义、分类及产生机理;重点从根系分泌物的化感自毒效应,根系分泌物诱导根际微生物群落,根系分泌物影响病原菌丰度,根系分泌物影响根际土壤环境4个方面阐述了根系分泌物与土传病害的关系;并从研究方法和研究领域方面展望了今后研究的方向与重点。未来需要建立根系分泌物的原位收集、实时监测、量化方法技术体系,耦合利用组学技术,建立植物根系分泌物-根际微生物组成与功能-病害之间关系的数据库网络公用平台,加强根际病原菌与其他微生物相互作用关系研究,亟需根系分泌物作用下导致植物发病的病原菌浓度阈值研究,以期为发展土传病害的产生原理和完善土传病害根际防控技术提供依据。
关键词:  根系分泌物  病原菌  土传病害  根际微生物  根际调控
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2021.02.002
分类号:S154
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41601266)、江苏省自然科学基金面上项目(SBK2020023002)和院基本科研业务专项项目(重点人才配套)(ZX(2020)3011)资助。
Research Progresses on Relationship Between Plant Root Exudates and Soil-borne Diseases
REN Gaidi1,2,3, WANG Guangfei1,2, MA Yan1,2,4
1.Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014, China;2.Key Laboratory of Agro-Environment in Downstream of Yangtze Plain, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing 210014, China;3.Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013, China;4.School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013, China
Abstract:
Root exudates act as the bridge between plant, soil and pathogen, and they are also the key ecological factors determining the relationship between pathogens and crops, thus, can influence the occurrence and development of soil-borne diseases. In this paper, the concept, components and generation mechanisms of root exudates were summarized. Then, the relationship between root exudates and soil-borne diseases was mainly reviewed from the following four aspects:1) the relationship between allelochemicals in root exudates and soil-borne diseases; 2) the effects of root exudates on soil-borne diseases by attracting rhizosphere microorganisms; 3) the effects of root exudates on soil-borne diseases by affecting the abundance of pathogens; and 4) the effects of root exudates on soil-borne diseases by affecting rhizosphere soil environment. Next, the direction and emphases of the future research were prospected in terms of the study methods and areas, which included developing the methods of in-situ collecting, real-time monitoring and quantifying the root exudates, establishing an open database which shows the plant-root exudates-microbial community composition and function that the root exudates regulated-diseases relationships by using omics technology, the interaction between rhizosphere pathogens and other microbes, and the threshold of pathogen concentration in the rhizosphere that can cause plant diseases. These efforts will provide a basis for disclosing the occurrence principle and control technology of soil-borne diseases.
Key words:  Root exudates  Pathogen  Soil borne diseases  Rhizosphere microbiome  Rhizosphere regulation

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