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江苏省‘苏翠1号’高产及中低产梨园土壤与叶片养分的差异研究
王 莉, 叶小梅, 张应鹏, 王子臣, 奚永兰, 靳红梅
江苏省农业科学院循环农业研究中心,农业农村部种养结合重点实验室
摘要:
为了解江苏省‘苏翠1号’高产及中低产梨园土壤与叶片养分状况,以期为梨园合理施肥提供科学依据,分析测定了江苏省苏南、苏中、苏北20个‘苏翠1号’梨园的土壤理化性状及叶片营养,并采用R语言“Vegan”程序包对‘苏翠1号’高产及中低产梨园的土壤和叶片养分含量进行了差异分析,最后探究了梨园土壤养分与叶养分的相关性。将测定的梨园土壤及叶养分分别与梨园土壤养分最适标准值及梨叶片养分标准值进行了比较分析,结果表明,本研究中90% 的梨园土壤pH在5.6 ~ 7.2的适宜范围内,90% 的梨园土壤有机质含量处于适宜或丰富状态,60% 的梨园土壤碱解氮含量不足,40% 的梨园土壤有效钾缺乏,而85% 的梨园土壤出现了有效磷的富集。所测定梨园土壤交换性钙、镁含量丰富,而缺乏土壤有效铁、锰、铜的果园比例分别为15%、60% 和25%。叶片缺乏氮、磷、镁、锰、铜的果园比例分别为15%、65%、25%、25% 和90%。土壤及叶养分的整体状况与果园地理位置及产量存在显著相关性。高产梨园土壤有机质、有效磷、有效铁、有效锰和有效铜含量均显著高于中低产梨园;高产梨园叶片氮含量显著高于中低产梨园,叶片磷和钾的含量显著低于中低产梨园。综上,土壤有机质、有效磷、有效铁、有效锰、有效铜和叶片氮、磷、钾含量是高产梨园与中低产梨园养分差异的重要特征因子。本研究结果表明梨园施肥管理应将叶片营养诊断和土壤诊断相结合。
关键词:    土壤理化性状  叶片养分  养分评价  养分差异分析
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.06.012
分类号:S158
基金项目:江苏省农业科技自主创新资金项目(CX (19) 3094)资助。
Nutrient Differences in Soils and Leaves Between Yield-invigorating and -debilitating Pear Orchards of 'Sucui No.1' in Jiangsu Province
WANG Li, YE Xiaomei, ZHANG Yingpeng, WANG Zichen, XI Yonglan, JIN Hongmei
Recycling Agriculture Research Center, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Crop and Livestock Integration, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Areas
Abstract:
In order to understand the nutrient status in soil and leaf of yield-invigorating and -debilitating pear orchards of ‘Sucui No.1’ in Jiangsu Province and provide the scientific basis for reasonable fertilization of pear orchards, soil and leaf samples were collected and measured from 20 ‘Sucui No. 1’ pear orchardes in the south, middle, and north of Jiangsu Province and nutrients were analyzed by the “Vegan” package in R software. The correlation between the nutrients in soils and leaves, and the measured soil and leaf nutrients were compared with the corresponding optimum standard values of pear orchard. The results showed that 90% of the orchards were within pH appropriate range of 5.6 - 7.2, and 90% of the orchards were suitable or abundant in organic matter (>1%), and 60% and 40% of the orchards were insufficient in alkaline nitrogen and available potassium, respectively, and 85% of the orchards were rich in available phosphorus. All the orchards were rich in soil exchangeable calcium and magnesium, 15%, 60% and 25% of the orchards were insufficient in soil available iron, manganese and copper, respectively. 15%, 65%, 25%, 25% and 90% of leaves were insufficient in nitrogen, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese and copper, respectively. Soil and leaf nutrients were significantly correlated with the orchard location and pear yield. The contents of soil organic matter, available phosphorus, iron, manganese and copper in yield-invigorating pear orchards were significantly higher than those in yield-debilitating ones. Meanwhile, the leaf nitrogen in yield-invigorating pear orchards was significantly higher than in yield- debilitating ones. In summary, contents of organic matter, available phosphorus, iron, manganese and copper in soil whereas contents of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in leaves were different between yield-invigorating and -debilitating pear orchards, indicating that the diagnose of leaf nutrition and soil should be combined when fertilization regimes of pear orchards were constructed.
Key words:  Pear  Physiochemical properties of soil  Leaf nutrient content  Nutrient evaluation  Nutrient difference analysis

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