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绿肥还田在稻作生态系统的效应分析及研究展望
王强盛1, 薄雨心1,2, 余坤龙1, 刘晓雪1
1.南京农业大学现代农作制度与生态循环农业实验室, 南京 210095;2.南京农业大学园艺学院, 南京 210095
摘要:
绿肥种植利用是中国传统农业技术的精华,也是绿色生态循环农业发展的关键性举措,为中国粮食稳定和绿色增效发挥着十分重要的作用。水稻栽种之前的绿肥还田耕作模式就是将绿肥植物体直接耕翻于稻田中作为肥料或是将绿肥植物体沤堆成肥再施用于稻田土壤,这不仅能够培肥稻田土壤、增强土壤供肥能力和减少稻季化学肥料施用,而且能够减少稻田周年化学养分供给、减轻稻田营养物质流失、提高养分资源利用效率,是轻简种植、绿色高效的农作制度模式。本文概述了绿肥还田对稻田土壤质量、资源利用效率和温室气体排放等方面的影响,展望了绿肥在稻田资源利用中的潜力,为绿肥高效种植和合理还田提供参考。
关键词:  绿肥植物  稻作系统  土壤质量  温室气体
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2021.02.004
分类号:S551+3;S551+7;S553+9
基金项目:江苏省重点研发计划项目(BE2018333)、江苏省现代农业产业技术体系项目(JATS[2019]443)和江苏省政策引导科技计划项目(SZ-YC2019005)资助。
Analysis and Research Prospect of Effect of Green Manure Returning on Rice Cropping Ecosystem
WANG Qiangsheng1, BO Yuxin1,2, YU Kunlong1, LIU Xiaoxue1
1.Laboratory of Modern Farming System and Ecological Circular Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China;2.College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
Abstract:
The cultivation and utilization of green manure plants is not only the essence of Chinese traditional agricultural technology, but also the key measure for the development of green ecological circular agriculture, which plays a very important role in maintaining soil fertility and grain stability and realizing green increasing efficiency in China. Returning green manure to the field is, before rice transplanting, to plough green manure plants directly into paddy field as fertilizer or to compost green manure plants into fertilizer and then apply it to paddy soil, it can not only fertilize paddy soil, enhance soil fertilizer supply capacity and reduce the application of chemical fertilizer in rice season, but also reduce the annual supply of chemical nutrients and reduce nutrient loss in paddy field, thus, improve the utilization efficiency of nutrient resources, therefore, it is an easy, green and efficient farming system. This paper summarizes the impact of green manure returning on soil quality, resource utilization efficiency and greenhouse gas emission of paddy fields, looks forward to the development of green manure utilization in paddy field, and provides the reference for efficient planting and reasonable return of green manure.
Key words:  Green manure plant  Paddy ecosystem  Soil quality  Greenhouse gas

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