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测土配方施肥对菊花苗期生长发育、土壤性质、养分吸收的影响
周杨,陈发棣,陈素梅,方馨妍,房伟明,管志勇,汪燕,赵爽
南京农业大学
摘要:
养分管理对作物生长发育和后期产量、品质影响显著,氮磷钾的合理施用不仅能够改善作物生长,还能显著提高其品质及经济效益。本试验在测土配方施肥条件下研究切花菊苗期养分吸收转运规律,为切花菊‘南农黄蜂窝’提供苗期的最佳施肥方案。氮、磷、钾设置三个因素,氮为0kg/hm2(对照),30kg/hm2,60kg/hm2,90kg/hm2;磷为0kg/hm2(对照),24kg/hm2,48kg/hm2,72kg/hm2 ;钾为0kg/hm2(对照),36kg/hm2,72kg/hm2,108kg/hm2,按照“3414”方案,设计14个处理,测定不同施肥处理下切花菊生长指标、土壤理化性质、切花菊氮磷钾养分含量。结果显示:氮磷钾肥的施入能显著改善切花菊‘南农黄蜂窝’的农艺性状包括株高、茎粗、地下部鲜干重、茎鲜干重、叶鲜干重,其中,N2P2K1处理长势最佳,在45d时,其株高、茎粗、地下部鲜重、茎鲜重、叶鲜重、地下部干重、茎干重、叶干重分别为对照的1.30、1.09、2.20、1.90、1.88、1.87、1.47、1.80倍;不同施肥处理对土壤的理化性质影响显著,其中施肥处理的土壤pH值,表现为整体下降趋势,土壤中的速效成分包括铵态氮、速效磷、速效钾含量分别与氮、磷、钾肥施入量呈显著正相关关系,N2P2K1处理土壤中的速效成分包括铵态氮、速效磷、速效钾含量分别是对照的1.15、1.40、1.06倍;氮磷钾肥的施入影响植株养分含量,施肥处理比对照处理的植株全氮、全磷、全钾含量均显著增加,N2P2K1处理植株全氮含量、植株全磷含量、植株全钾含量为25.13g/kg、4.50g/kg、55.54g/kg,分别是对照的1.37、1.12、1.26倍。因此,不同施肥处理对切花菊苗期的形态特征、土壤理化性质、植株氮磷钾含量有显著影响。综合考虑测土情况及切花菊苗期各项生长指标,推荐切花菊‘南农黄蜂窝’苗期的施肥方案为N2:60kg/hm2,P2:48kg/hm2,K1:36kg/hm2。
关键词:  切花菊  测土配方施肥  氮磷钾  养分吸收  土壤性质
DOI:
分类号:S682.1
基金项目:江苏省农业科技自主创新资金项目CX(18)2020资助,江苏省重点研发计划(现代农业)面上项目(BE2019384),中央高效基本科研业务费(Y0201900749),江苏省科研院校农技推广服务试点项目TG(17)002,江苏省优势学科建设工程项目
Effects of Soil Testing and Formula Fertilization on Growth, Soil Properties and Nutrient Absorption of Chrysanthemum in Seedling Stage
ZHOU Yang1, CHEN Fa-di2, CHEN Su-mei2, Fang Xinyan2, FANG Wei-min2, GUAN Zhi-yong2, Wang Yan2, ZHAO Shuang2
1.Nanjig Agricultural University;2.Nanjing Agricultural College
Abstract:
Nutrient management plays an important role in the growth, yield and quality of various plant. Reasonable N, P and K fertilization can not only improve the growth and quality of plant, but also improve the economic benefits significantly. In this study, the rule of nutrient absorption and transportation of cut chrysanthemum 'Nannong Huangfengwo' in the seedling stage were studied under the condition of soil testing and formula fertilization, and the optimized fertilization scheme is concluded. N, P and K were settled as: N 0kg/hm2 (control), 30kg/hm2, 60kg/hm2, 90kg/hm2; P 0kg/hm2 (control), 24kg /hm2, 48kg / hm2, 72kg/hm2; K 0kg/hm2 (control), 36kg/hm2, 72kg/hm2, 108kg / hm2, there were 14 treatments formed in total according to the‘3414’design. The results indicated that the application of N, P and K fertilizers could significantly improve the agronomic characters of cut chrysanthemum 'Nannong Huangfengwo'. Among all treatments, N2P2K1 show the highest growth benefit, the index of plant height, stem diameter, root fresh weight, stem and leaf fresh weight, root dry weight, stem and leaf dry weight is 1.30, 1.09, 2.20, 1.90, 1.88, 1.87, 1.47 and 1.80 fold than that in the control on day 45. Different fertilizer treatments show the significant correlation with the soil physical and chemical properties, the soil pH decreased with the increased N, P and K fertilizers, while the contents of soil available N, available P and available K existed positively correlated with the increased amount of N, P and K fertilizers. In N2P2K1, the contents of soil available N, available P and available K showed 1.15, 1.40 and 1.06 fold respectively than that in the control. The total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total potassium contents of the cut chrysanthemum in the N2P2K1 treatment were 25.13g/kg, 4.50g/kg and 55.54g/kg, which showed 1.37, 1.12 and 1.26 fold than that in the control. Therefore, different amount of N, P and K application showed significant effects on the morphological characteristics, soil physical and chemical properties, and the content of plant nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of cut chrysanthemum. The best fertilization scheme of cut chrysanthemum 'Nannong Huangfengwo' is N2: 60kg/hm2, P2: 48kg/hm2, K1: 36kg/hm2, which is recommended scheme of cut chrysanthemum 'Nannong Huangfengwo' in the seedling stage.
Key words:  Cut chrysanthemum  Soil testing and formula fertilization  NPK  Nutrient absorption  Soil properties

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