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黄河流域主要梨园土壤养分丰缺状况分析
董彩霞1, 谢昶琰1, 李红旭2, 王东升3, 王少敏4, 徐凌飞5, 郭黄萍6, 徐阳春7
1.南京农业大学资源与环境科学学院;2.甘肃省农业科学院果树科学研究所;3.河南省农业科学院园艺研究所;4.山东省农科院果树研究所;5.西北农林科技大学园艺学院;6.山西省农业科学院果树研究所;7.南京农业大学资环院
摘要:
梨园土壤理化性状是梨树科学施肥、合理养分管理及土壤改良的基础。在国家梨产业技术体系黄河流域5个综合试验站224个主产区梨园采集树冠滴水线下0~20 cm 土样用于土壤理化性状的分析。结果表明:除泰安试验站外其他梨园土壤pH均在6.62~7.82之间;90%以上的梨园土壤有机质含量低于20 g/kg,其中24%的梨园土壤有机质含量低于10 g/kg,属于缺乏状态;几乎全部梨园土壤碱解氮含量都低于100 mg/kg;土壤速效磷和速效钾含量较丰富,均有富集现象,其中速效磷和速效钾含量分别高于40mg/kg和200mg/kg的梨园中以杨凌试验站最高,分别为87%和94%;土壤交换性钙、镁含量均较高,平均值分别达3073mg/kg和220mg/kg。土壤微量元素含量中,75%的梨园土壤有效铁含量低于10mg/kg,50%左右的土壤有效锰含量低于10mg/kg,约30%的土壤有效铜和有效锌含量低于1mg/kg,缺乏或较低的比例均较高。除太谷、郑州和泰安试验站部分土壤有效硼含量较低外,近60%的梨园有效硼含量处于适宜和丰富范围。针对上述养分含量特征,结合树体养分含量,提出黄河流域梨园养分管理建议。
关键词:  黄河流域,梨园,土壤,养分丰缺
DOI:
分类号:S661.2
基金项目:现代农业产业技术体系建设专项资金项目(NO.CARS-28-10)资助。
SOIL NUTRIENT STATUS IN THE MAIN PEAR orchard OF YELLOW RIVER BASIN AREA
dongcaixia,xiechangyan,lihongxu,wangdongsheng,wangshaomin,xulingfei,guohuangping,xuyangchun
1.College of Resource and Environment Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University;2.Fruit Research Institute, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences;3.Institute of Horticulture, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences;4.Shandong Institute of Pomology;5.College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University;6.Shanxi Academy of Agricultual Sciences Pomology Institute
Abstract:
The physical and chemical properties of pear orchard soil is the basis of scientific fertilization, rational nutrient management and soil improvement of pear trees. The soil of five integrated test station in the Yellow River basin of the national pear industry technology system was selected, 0-20 cm mixed soil samples under the tree canopy drip line were collected for soil physical and chemical characteristics analysis. The results showed that the other pear orchard soil pH in the the Yellow River basin was between 6.62 and 7.82 Tai'an Test Station. More than 90% of the pear orchard organic matter content was less than 20g/kg, of which 24% of the pear soil organic matter content less than 10g/kg, which belonged to the lack of state.The Yellow River basin were only 9% pear orchard organic matter content of the region exceed 20g/kg, and almost all pear orchards soil nitrogen content was lower than 100mg/kg, and the overall was low. Soil available phosphorus and available potassium enrichment were obvious,among them, the soil available phosphorus and available potassium content were higher than 40mg/kg and 200mg/kg in Yangling Experimental Station, respectively, which were 87% and 94% respectively.The main pear orchard in the area soil exchangeable calcium and magnesium contents were all higher. the average values were as high as 3073mg/kg and 220mg/kg, respectively. 75% of pear soil available iron content was lower than 10mg/kg.About 50% of pear soil available manganese content is less than that of 10mg/kg,about 30% of pear soil available copper and zinc content was lower than 1mg/kg, the lack or lower proportion were higher. Except for the low effective boron content of some pear orchards in Taigu, Zhengzhou and Tai'an, nearly 60% of the effective boron content of pear orchards was suitable and abundant. In this paper, the content of soil organic matter in the main pear of the Yellow River basin was low, the available phosphorus and potassium are enriched and the content of soil trace elements was low. According to the above characteristics of nutrient content and the nutrient content of tree, some suggestions on nutrient management of pear garden in the Yellow River basin are proposed.
Key words:  yellow river basin area, pear orchard, soil, nutrient abundant and deficiency

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